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Tag Archives: Wandsworth

WW1 100: London’s Memorials… The Machine Gun Corps & the Man Who Mended Faces

2014 will mark the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of World War One.

Troops

Raging from July 28th 1914 to 11th November 1918, this hellish conflict was the world’s first truly modern war, characterized by the widespread use of tanks, aircraft, heavy artillery and poison gas.

A WWI Tank.

A WWI Tank.

So intense was the fighting it is said that, during particularly heavy clashes, the thunder of guns could be heard echoing as far away as London.

Leaving Europe with deep physical and psychological scars, the Great War claimed a grand total of 16 million lives and left a further 21 million injured.

'Gassed' by John Singer Sargent, 1919. This painting is part of the Imperial War Museum's collection.

‘Gassed’ by John Singer Sargent, 1919. This painting is part of the Imperial War Museum’s collection.

On a personal level, my Great Great Grandfather- who was also named Robert- was shot at the Battle of Passchendaele in 1917.

Although he was lucky enough to survive (had he not, I would not be sitting here writing this now), the bullet he took remained in his body for the rest of his life.

Wounded soldiers at Passchendaele, Belgium, 1917.

Wounded soldiers at Passchendaele, Belgium, 1917.

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To mark this sombre landmark in our relatively recent history- and as my personal tribute to all of those who died, whatever their nationality- I have decided to start a new series which, over time, will take a look at London’s many World War One memorials and the stories behind them.

WW1 London Memorials Logo

I shall begin with ‘The Machine Gun Corps’ memorial.

The Machine Gun Corps Memorial
Hyde Park Corner
Location of the Machine Gun Corps Memorial at Hyde Park Corner.

Location of the Machine Gun Corps Memorial at Hyde Park Corner (image: Google).

When war first erupted in the summer of 1914, the British Military were still very much of a 19th century mind-set, confident that traditional infantry and cavalry based tactics would be sufficient enough force to seize victory… a tragically naïve assumption which was starkly portrayed in the 2011 film adaptation of Michael Morpurgo’s book, ‘Warhorse’ (please click below to view):

After a few bloody months on the Western Front, it soon became clear in which direction the conflict was heading, leading to the formation of the Machine Gun Corps in October 1915.

Machine Gun Corps badge (image: Wikipedia).

Machine Gun Corps badge (image: Wikipedia).

During WWI, the Machine Gun Corps were deployed in a wide range of theaters including France, Belgium, Palestine, Egypt, East Africa and Italy.

Because of the nature of their weaponry, troops from the MGC often fought well beyond the front line; a factor which earned the Corps both a high casualty rate and a darkly comic nickname… ‘The Suicide Club’.

Gas masked troops from the Machine Gun Corps at the Battle of the Somme, 1916.

Gas masked troops from the Machine Gun Corps at the Battle of the Somme, 1916.

Seven members of the Machine Gun Corps were awarded the Victoria Cross; the highest possible accolade for bravery.

The Memorial

Unveiled in 1925, the memorial to the fallen of the Machine Gun Corps is embodied by a statue known as the ‘Boy David’; the Biblical figure who proved his worth after slaying the fearsome giant, Goliath.

The 'Boy David' Machine Gun Corps Memorial.

The ‘Boy David’ Machine Gun Corps Memorial.

Although we tend to associate David with heroism and triumph over adversity, his representation in this case is naked; something which suggests a sense of vulnerability.

Statue full length

The statue’s plinth includes a quote from the Book of Samuel; “Saul hath slain his thousands but David his tens of thousands”; a grim nod to the impact which the Machine Gun Corps had on the course of the war.

Saul hath slain....

On either side of the statue sit two ‘Vickers’ machine guns, each encircled with laurel wreaths. These fearsome weapons are actually real models… so it is some comfort that they are now encased in bronze.

Gun

The rear of the statue provides a brief history of the Corps:

The Machine Gun Corps of which His Majesty King George V was Colonel in Chief, was formed by Royal Warrant dated the 14th day of October 1915.

The Corps served in France, Flanders, Russia, Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Salonica, India, Afghanistan and East Africa.

The last unit of the Corps to be disbanded was the Depot at Shorncliffe on the 15th day of July 1922.

The total number who served in the Corps was some 11,500 Officers and 159,000 other ranks of whom 1120 Officers and 12,671 other ranks killed and 2,881 Officers and 45,377 other ranks were wounded, missing or prisoners of war.”

Machine Gun Corps troops at Arras.

Machine Gun Corps troops at Arras.

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When first erected, the memorial stood on Grosvenor Place; just south of Hyde Park Corner.

This first site was short-lived, with major road works soon requiring the statue’s removal. It was placed in storage for many years, finally returning in 1963 when it was placed at its present site on the northern side of Hyde Park Corner, backing onto one of London’s busiest road junctions.

Looking towards the memorial at Hyde Park Corner.

Looking towards the memorial at Hyde Park Corner (image: Google).

An annual observance is held at the statue on the 2nd Saturday of every May.

Francis Derwent Wood

Perhaps the most poignant factor about the Machine Gun Corps memorial is the story behind its sculptor; Francis Derwent Wood.

Francis Derwent Wood.

Francis Derwent Wood.

Francis Derwent Wood was born in the Lake District in 1871 and went onto teach sculpture at the Glasgow School of Art.

When war broke out in 1914, he was too old for military service, so volunteered to work in the bustling hospital wards, coming to be based at the 3rd London General Hospital in Wandsworth.

The 3rd London General Hospital.

The 3rd London General Hospital.

Originally built in the 1850s as a home and school for orphans, this grand building was requisitioned in WW1 for use as a military hospital.

To cope with the sheer number of wounded troops being brought it, a temporary platform and station were built on the hospital’s western side (which backs onto one of the main lines into Clapham Junction).

A field behind the hospital (which is today a cricket ground) became an overflow area, lined with row after row of marquees standing in as temporary wards.

Postcard displaying the 3rd London General Hospital, Wandsworth. The railway lines, which delivered wounded troops can be seen to the south, the overflow tent-wards towards the north.

Postcard displaying the 3rd London General Hospital, Wandsworth. The railway lines which delivered wounded troops can be seen to the south, the overflow tent-wards towards the north.

Today, the former hospital is now known as the ‘Royal Victoria Patriotic Building’; a complex of apartments, workshops, studios, a drama school and a restaurant called ‘Le Gothique’.

The former 3rd London General Hospital today... now known as the Royal Victoria Patriotic Building (image: Google).

The former 3rd London General Hospital today… now known as the Royal Victoria Patriotic Building (image: Google).

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At the 3rd London General Hospital, Francis Derwent Wood encountered many young men who had suffered horrific injuries inflicted by the terrifying new weaponry.

Canadian patients at the 3rd London General Hospital, Wandsworth.

Canadian patients at the 3rd London General Hospital, Wandsworth.

Facial traumas were especially commonplace; if a squaddie quickly popped his head over the trench, an unexpected explosion or burst of enemy fire could have catastrophic results.

In one account, an American soldier, shot in the skull in 1918, described the experience; “It sounded to me like someone had dropped a glass bottle into a porcelain bathtub… a barrel of whitewash tipped over and it seemed that everything in the world turned white.”

In some cases, victims literally lost half their face… yet somehow managed to survive.

Although plastic surgery techniques were being pioneered at the time, there were some unfortunate souls who even this could not help.

Exposed to such tragedies, Francis Derwent Wood had a brain-wave.

Realising that his artistic skills may be able to help those with extensive facial scars, he took it upon himself to set up the ‘Masks for Facial Disfigurement Department’ within the hospital where, beginning in March 1916, he began to use his expertise to create custom masks for his patient’s shattered faces.

Francis Derwent Wood working on a patient's mask (image: The Imperial War Museum).

Francis Derwent Wood working on a patient’s mask (image: The Imperial War Museum).

Taking up to a month to create, each mask, which was made from ultra-lightweight metal and painted in enamel to match the wearer’s skin tone, was a work of art in itself, designed to fully disguise the affected area.

Where eyebrows and moustaches were required, slivers of tinfoil were used- rather like the technique used on ancient Greek statues.

Patients at the hospital quickly gave the department an affectionate nickname; ‘The Tin Nose Shop.

Bits and bobs from Derwent Wood's 'Tin Nose Shop' (image: The Imperial War Museum).

Bits and bobs from Derwent Wood’s ‘Tin Nose Shop’ (image: The Imperial War Museum).

This creative solution did wonders for the morale of young men faced with a future of horrified stares and social exclusion- in Sidcup for example, which was also home to a facial hospital, certain park benches were designated for the use of patients…and were painted blue as a warning to passers-by of a more sensitive nature.

Interviewed in The Lancet in 1917, Francis said; “My work begins where the work of the surgeon is complete…The patient acquires his old self-respect, self-assurance, self-reliance… takes once more to a pride in his personal appearance. His presence is no longer a source of melancholy to himself nor the sadness of his relatives and friends.”

A wounded soldier examining the beginnings of his facial mask (image: The Imperial War Museum).

A wounded soldier examining the beginnings of his facial mask (image: The Imperial War Museum).

Derwent Wood’s work was soon noticed by the American sculptor, Anna Coleman.

Anna Coleman (image: Wikipedia).

Anna Coleman (image: Wikipedia).

After liaising with Derwent Wood and with support from the American Red Cross, Anna opened her own mask studio in Paris, where she continued the pioneering work on severely wounded French and American troops.

A video of this studio survives, which gives a good idea of the process involved at the hospitals in Paris and London (please click below to view):

Unsurprisingly, Anna Coleman and Francis Derwent Wood received many grateful letters from those they’d helped.

One particular response is heart-breaking in what it says;

Thanks to you, I will have a home… the woman I love no longer finds me repulsive.”

Close up of the Boy David statue...

Close up of the Boy David statue…

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Francis Derwent Wood’s studio was wound down in 1919.

Although he was able to help several hundred men, this was a mere drop in a very sad ocean- over 20,000 would return from the continent with facial wounds.

After the war, Francis was commissioned to create memorials in honour of the men who never returned. These works include a statue for Liverpool’s Cotton Association, ‘Humanity Overcoming War’ in Bradford and work on the memorial plinth in his home town of Keswick.

Francis Derwent Wood's sculpture for the Liverpool Cotton Exchange (image: Wikipedia).

Francis Derwent Wood’s sculpture for the Liverpool Cotton Exchange (image: Wikipedia).

He also created a controversial sculpture of a crucified soldier; ‘Canada’s Golgotha’ which can be seen in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa.

'Canada's Golgotha'... (image: Wikipedia).

‘Canada’s Golgotha’… (image: Wikipedia).

London’s Machine Gun Corps memorial was one of Derwent Wood’s last pieces. He died just two years after its unveiling.

In 1929, a small, bronze copy of the Boy David was made by Edward Bainbridge Copnall as a memorial to Francis Derwent Wood.

The Boy David modello by Edward Bainbridge, 1929 (image: Copyright Paul Farmer, via Geograph).

The Boy David modello by Edward Bainbridge, 1929 (image: Copyright Paul Farmer, via Geograph).

Bequeathed by the Chelsea Arts Club, it can today be seen on the north side of Chelsea Embankment, overlooking Albert Bridge.

The Boy David Chelsea

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Droogs About Town: London Locations Featured in ‘A Clockwork Orange’

Released in 1971 and directed by Stanley Kubrick, A Clockwork Orange was by far one of the 20th century’s most controversial films.

Poster for A Clockwork Orange

Based on Anthony Burgess’ 1962 novel of the same name (the title being inspired by the old Cockney phrase “as queer as a clockwork orange’), the story is set in a dystopian London of the near future and centres on Alex DeLargea sadistic youth with a passion for Beethoven- who leads his gang of ‘droogs’ through the city on nightly sprees of ultra-violent mischief.

Alex De Large stares at the camera in the film’s iconic opening shot…

After committing murder, Alex is finally locked up… but is soon offered a quick way out when he agrees to act as a guinea pig for the Ludovico Technique; a controversial brain-washing programme designed to suppresses the desire for violence (and something which caused actor Malcolm McDowell great pain and discomfort when it came to portraying these disturbing scenes). 

Alex undergoing the Ludovico Technique

In Britain, thanks to high levels of upset whipped up in the press, the film version of A Clockwork Orange gained such an intense notoriety that Stanley Kubrick himself withdrew his work from circulation; a self-imposed ban which remained right up until 2000.

Stanley Kubrick

So strict was this embargo that, in 1993 when the Scala Cinema in Kings Cross attempted to screen the film, Warner Brothers took the owners to court; an action which led to the cinema going bust thanks to the immense legal costs involved. 

Considering A Clockwork Orange was filmed entirely around London and the Home Counties (including areas such as Borehamwood, Kingston-Upon-Thames, Elstree, Radlett, Brunel University, Bricket Wood and Wandsworth prison) it’s rather ironic that British audiences were forbidden from viewing Kubrick’s film for so many years.

Here are some of the film’s most prominent London-based scenes:

The Chelsea Drugstore

Whilst Alex’s nights are spent committing all manner of horrific acts whilst tanked up on drug-laced milk, his days are rather more civil… devoted to indulging his love of classical music; especially that of the “lovely, lovely Ludwig Van” Beethoven.

In one of the film’s scenes, we follow Alex, decked out in his dandiest threads as he peruses his favourite record shop (click below to view):

This scene was filmed in the basement of the Chelsea Drugstore; a modern building fashioned from glass and aluminium which opened on the King’s Road in 1968.

The Chelsea Drugstore (Image: Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea)

Open 16 hours a day, 7 days a week, the Chelsea Drugstore was an avant-garde, mini shopping mall, its three floors boasting eateries, boutiques, a record shop, bar, newsagent and chemist.

It also boasted its own ‘Flying Squad’… an exclusive team of women clad in purple castsuits who were employed to make unconventional home deliveries on their fleet of motorbikes. Groovy! 

Map showing the location of the former Chelsea Drugstore.

The Chelsea Drugstore was also name checked in The Rolling Stone’s 1968 hit, You Can’t Always Get What You Want.” (Speaking of The Stones, Mick Jagger was once earmarked to play Alex DeLarge in an earlier proposed adaptation of Burgess’ novel which never came to fruition…)

Although the Chelsea Drugstore ceased trading in 1971, the shops in the basement (as featured in A Clockwork Orange) remained in place until the late 1980s whilst the rest of the building became a wine bar.

Today, the building is occupied by the Chelsea branch of McDonalds.

The building which once housed the Chelsea Drugstore… now a McDonalds. (Image: Google Streetview)

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Thamesmead

Despite the inclusion of the psychedelic Chelsea Drugstore, A Clockwork Orange is mostly set against a cold, dystopian backdrop; a precedent set in Burgess’ original novel as the following excerpt, in which Alex and his gang are evading the police, atmospherically illustrates:

Just round the next turning was an alley, dark and empty at both ends, and we rested there, panting fast then slower, then breathing like normal. It was like resting between the feet of two terrific and very enormous mountains, these being flatblocks, and in the windows of all the flats you could viddy like blue dancing light. This would be the telly. Tonight was what they called a worldcast, meaning that the same programme was being viddied by everyone in the world that wanted to… and it was all being bounced off the special telly satellites in outer space.

In order to realise Burgess’ bleak, futuristic vision Stanley Kubrick turned to the modern, Brutalist architecture which was sprouting across London during the era in which the book and film were created; architecture which, as early as 1962, Anthony Burgess was already predicting would provide fertile ground for many unforeseen social ills.

1962 first edition for ‘A Clockwork Orange’ by Anthony Burgess

In Burgess’ novel, Alex lives in “Municipal Flatblock 18a”, a block daubed in obscene graffiti and plagued by vandalism.

To represent this domestic seediness, Kubrick took his film crew to the newly built Thamesmead Estate; a vast, sprawling development near Woolwich in South East London.

Screenshot of the Thamesmead as depicted in A Clockwork Orange…

Built on a former military site, the Thamesmead Estate, which was optimistically promoted as being the “town of the twenty-first century”, was built piecemeal between the 1960s and 1980s.

Thamesmead’s Binsey Walk, as featured in ‘A Clockwork Orange.’ (Image: Wikipedia)

One of the film’s most famous sequences takes place on Thamesmead’s Binsey Walk.

Map depicting location of Binsey Walk.

Walking alongside the man-made Southmere Lake Alex, whose leadership has just been challenged, decides to show his droogs whose really in charge (click below to view):

In recent years, the Thamesmead Estate has been used as a set for the E4 comedy, ‘Misfits.

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York Road Roundabout, Wandsworth

Map depicting York Road Roundabout.

One of the most notorious scenes in Kubrick’s adaptation takes place at the very beginning of the film and involves a vicious assault on a hapless down and out as he lies drunkenly in a grimy, pedestrian subway.

The scene was filmed in the warren of walkways beneath York Road roundabout, which sits at the southern foot of Wandsworth Bridge.

Typical of the architecture of the time, York Road roundabout was laid out in 1969 and was pretty much brand new when Stanley Kubrick set up his cameras. 

Stanley Kubrick with Malcolm McDowell on set below York Road roundabout, 1971 (image: Stanley Kubrick Archive).

Today, the labyrinth beneath the roundabout is just as bleak and unwelcoming as it was some 40 years ago…

The subway today…

Modern Droogs? York Road Roundabout subway, November 2012…

More recently, a large atom-esque sculpture of sorts has been plonked down on the roundabout, becoming something of a local landmark.

York Road roundabout’s atom sculpture.

Apparently inspired by the 1950’s Atomium sculpture in Brussels, but kitted out with a bulky and intrusive advertising gantry, the tangle of metal doesn’t really do much to beautify the 1960s concrete…

York Road Roundabout

Looking up at the gantry.

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Albert Bridge

As for the unfortunate tramp who was attacked by Alex and his droogs below Wandsworth’s grimy roundabout… don’t worry, he gets his own back…

Map of Albert Bridge

After recognising the recently released (and now, thanks to his treatment, defenceless) Alex DeLarge glumly contemplating a view of the Thames, the tramp leads his own rabble in a revenge attack on the former and now defenceless yob, right beneath Albert Bridge; one of London’s most beautiful river crossings (click below to view):

Albert Bridge… one of the more traditional sites uses in ‘A Clockwork Orange.’ (Image: Wikipedia)

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Want more on Stanley Kubrick’s London? Then check out this post: A Monolith in St Katherine Docks

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