(To read the first part of this history on Crystal Palace Park, please click here.)
Although the vast Crystal Palace building was destroyed by fire in 1936, there is still plenty more to discover about the south London park in which it stood.
A Victorian Jurassic Park
Head to the lake in the park’s south-eastern corner and you’ll find the ‘Dinosaur Park’; the most direct link with the original Crystal Palace pleasure gardens.
When they were unveiled in 1854 the collection of dinosaur models were a ground breaking attraction. A contemporary guide book to the Crystal Palace informed visitors that:
“Long ages ago and probably before the birth of man, the earth was inhabited by living animals, differing in size and form from those now existing… whose bones, and sometimes even entire skeletons, are found buried in the earth, on the surface of which they once crawled; and it is from the study and comparison of these fossil remains that the vast bodies which the visitor sees before him have been constructed with a truthful certainty that admits of no dispute.”
Despite this assertion, today’s palaeontologists generally agree that the Victorian representations are rather inaccurate.
However, considering that their original creators- Benjamin Waterhouse and Richard Owen (founder of the Natural History Museum and the scientist who coined the word ‘dinosaur’ in the first place)- were the first to ever attempt such depictions of these long dead creatures, I think it’s fair to say that these faults can be forgiven.
The dinosaur models were very sturdily built; the main materials being brick and iron. They were pricey too, costing over £13,500 (approximately £800,000 in today’s money).
To celebrate their creation, a dinner party was famously hosted inside the Iguanodon model on New Year’s Eve, 1853. So ample was the beast that 20 diners were able to squeeze into his hollow innards.
As the twentieth century wore on the dinosaurs fell into a rather sorry state and by the 1950s they had become entangled with weeds.
Thankfully, following a £4 million sprucing up and the protection of a Grade 1 listing, they are now in excellent condition, proudly on show for new generations of dinosaur-mad youngsters to enjoy.
Another popular outdoor attraction dating from the original gardens is the Crystal Palace maze which first opened in 1870.
As with other areas of the park, the maze fell into shameful neglect during the twentieth century, becoming fiercely overgrown and off limits to budding adventurers.
In 2008, the maze was saved by the valiant effort of the girl guides, who put their gardening skills to practice, tidying up the leafy labyrinth and making it worthy of exploration once more- it is now one of the largest mazes in the UK.
The girl-guides themselves have an important link with Crystal Palace Park- in 1909, upon seeing a Scout rally at the park, a group of girls decided that they should have access to a similar organisation. Sir Robert Bayden Powell agreed to the request and, within one year, 6,000 girls had joined the new movement.
In the early 1960s the Crystal Palace Bowl was established in the park’s northern area; a popular, open-air music stage from which artists could perform to up to 22,000 spectators.
Classic music and opera were the venue’s staples and in 1971 the first Crystal Palace Garden Party was hosted; a summer festival featuring some of the era’s most celebrated pop acts.
The Garden Parties continued until the early 1980s and during their time acts including Pink Floyd, Eric Clapton, Elton John, The Beach Boys, Procol Harum, Steve Harley & Cockney Rebel, Roxy Music, Lou Reed, Deep Purple, Madness, Curtis Mayfield and many more graced the south London venue.
In June 1980, legendary reggae musician Bob Marley took to the stage. By this point, Bob was beginning to succumb to cancer and his Crystal Palace gig would be the last time he ever appeared in the capital. He died the following year, aged just 36.
Sport at Crystal Palace
Alongside the gardens, exhibitions, dinosaurs and concerts, Crystal Palace Park has also enjoyed a long association with sport.
In 1861, just a few years after the relocation of the glass exhibition hall, a football stadium was erected in the southern end of the park. This became home to Crystal Palace Football Club; an amateur side formed by groundkeepers who had originally worked at the Crystal Palace during its Hyde Park/Great Exhibition days.
In 1905, the stadium’s owners decided that the ground was worthy of a professional club, so an entirely new team was formed; although the original name was maintained. In 1915, the new Crystal Palace F.C had to vacate the stadium as it was taken over for war duties. They now of course play at nearby Selhurst Park.
As well as being home to the local side, Crystal Palace Park’s stadium also hosted the F.A cup final between 1895 and 1914. The ground was capable of holding large crowds- the biggest being in 1913 when Aston Villa’s clash with Sunderland pulled in over 120,000 fans.
Rugby matches took place at Crystal Palace’s stadium too- it was here, in December 1905, that the first ever international Rugby Union match between England and New Zealand was held (New Zealand won 15-0 it pains me to say!)
For a time, cricket could also be enjoyed here with Crystal Palace forming its own team in 1898- masterminded by none other than W.G Grace.
Unfortunately, the team struggled to take off and the sound of willow on wood at Crystal Palace Park ceased after just ten years.
Far more successful was the introduction of Speedway which took over the stadium in 1928. This remained a popular fixture until 1940, when WWII brought the proceedings to an abrupt halt.
Today, the site is occupied by the modern Crystal Palace Athletics Stadium which opened in 1964 and is capable of seating up to 24,000 people.
The stadium is accompanied by another 1960s building; the National Sports Centre which provides facilities for both indoor and outdoor sport.
The Crystal Palace sports complex was first envisioned in the 1950s by Sir Gerald Barry; the man responsible for directing the Festival of Britain. As such, the indoor centre shares a number of architectural similarities with the Southbank’s Royal Festival Hall.
Together, the Athletics Stadium and National Sports Centre have proved popular with locals and professional athletes alike and many a British Olympian has trained at Crystal Palace over the decades.
Although it may not seem apparent now, Crystal Palace Park was for many years home to a major motor-race track.
When it first opened in May 1927 the track was designed for motor bikes. Being one of the earliest examples of such a venue, the circuit was at first fairly basic; made from tightly-packed gravel with tarmac appearing only on the bends.
In 1928, whilst flying from Gravesend to Hanworth, a certain Mr R.H Henderson was most grateful for the Crystal Palace track when the craft he was piloting began to experience difficulties. He carried out an emergency landing on the circuit and skidding to a halt less than two yards before a set of iron railings. After carrying out repairs, Mr Henderson was then able to use the racetrack to get his plane back into the sky!
In July 1936, the first London Grand Prix was staged at the Crystal Palace Circuit. The event was broadcast by the BBC, making the race the first ever example of televised motor racing. In the same year, the track was extended to two miles and made all-tarmac.
Over the years, legends such as Stirling Moss and Jack Brabham demonstrated their breakneck skills at Crystal Palace. A short film depicting cars roaring around the track in 1964 can be viewed below:
As the power of racing cars increased however it soon became apparent that the Crystal Palace racetrack was no longer suitable for the sport. The last meeting was held in September 1972.
Although closed for many years, parts of the track are still clearly visible; much of it having been converted to service roads and footpaths.
In 1969, the Crystal Palace racetrack featured in the classic, British comedy, The Italian Job with the audacious crooks testing out their mini-driving skills on the circuit. It was also in the park that the infamous “You’re only supposed to blow the bloody doors off” scene was shot! (Click below to view).
Apparently, the film crew over-estimated the amount of explosives required… leading to a spate of windows being shattered nearby!
Broadcasting to London
Today, the park’s most prominent feature is the Crystal Palace Transmitter which soars over the western perimeter and has been a well-known London landmark since 1956.
The mast stands on the site of the old Crystal Palace’s aquarium with the main control centre sunk underground.
Construction of the tower was a major engineering feat with workers on the project labouring under some pretty precarious conditions.
Much of this work was captured in a documentary (shot in experimental colour) called The Phoenix Tower (a reference to the tower rising from the site of the old Crystal Palace which had been consumed by flames).
A short clip from the film (which was later used on the fledgling BBC2 as a test sequence when main programming was off air), can be viewed below:
Even today, workers on the Crystal Palace Transmitter have to have a real head for heights…
Unsurprisingly, when it was first opened the mast was dubbed ‘London’s Eiffel Tower‘.
Despite its elegant appearance, the tower was designed to be rock-solid- its strength being tested in the 1950s by the firing of five rockets which were launched from the tower’s top and exerted a thrust of two and a half tons… the mast didn’t budge an inch.
Standing at an impressive 718 ft., the transmitter is visible from many parts of London and is currently responsible for broadcasting television and radio across the capital and surrounding counties; an audience which comprises of approximately 12 million people.
Crystal Palace Museum
If you’re keen to find out more about the history of Crystal Palace, a small museum dedicated to the original exhibition hall can be found on Anerley Hill, a short walk from Crystal Palace station.
Housed in a late Victorian building, the museum contains a number of original documents and artefacts. For more information, please click here.
Spread across an impressive slope in Sydenham, South London, Crystal Palace Park is one of the capital’s most intriguing green spaces.
The locale has always been a noted beauty spot.
Before Crystal Palace Park was established, the area formed the grounds of ‘Penge Place’ (‘Penge’ deriving from the Celtic word, ‘Penceat’ meaning ‘on the edge of a wood’); a large, Tudor-style manor house built at the beginning of the 19th century by Edward Blore.
In its present form, the park owes its existence to an event which took place in 1851- The Great Exhibition; a five-month long celebration of all the world had to offer in terms of culture and technology.
Essentially the world’s first expo, The Great Exhibition was hosted north of the Thames in Hyde Park, housed within a vast, purpose-built structure forged from metal and glass….a building which the satirical magazine, Punch dubbed the “Crystal Palace”.
Between May and October 1851 millions from across both the UK and the world flocked to wonder at the Victorian marvel, firmly planting the building in the public psyche.
By the time the exhibition closed its doors, much of the British public had grown exceptionally fond of their ‘People’s Palace’ and there was great concern that the temporary structure was about to be lost forever.
Luckily, Salvation was at hand thanks to two solicitors- Messrs Leech and Farquhar who suggested that the palace be dismantled and resurrected elsewhere. This plan was quickly adopted and, within less than a year, a site in Sydenham had been earmarked as the new home; a location which the palace’s original architect, Sir Joseph Paxton, described as “the most beautiful spot in the world” for his celebrated creation.
In just two years the huge structure was carefully taken apart and transported to the south London green spot where it was skilfully reassembled and expanded.
The second incarnation of the Crystal Palace incorporated galleries representing the histories and cultures of numerous nations. For these installations, specialist craftsmen from abroad were drafted in to create the representations of their homelands. As one guide-book from the time noted, many firm friendships between these fellows and their British counterparts were made in the “palace of peace.”
Despite the enthusiasm, the project was not without tragedy.
In August 1853 during the building’s reconstruction, a section of scaffolding collapsed, plunging ten workmen 170ft to their deaths.
Following this disaster, 2,000 fellow workers attended a meeting at which it was declared “the working-class are the best protectors of their own interests” and that if the 2,000 colleagues “would each abridge themselves of a pint of ale a week, they might raise a fund of £500 a year for the relief of widows and orphans…”
The ten men were buried together nearby at St Bartholomew’s church, Sydenham (where their shared grave can still be seen), the funeral attended by 1,000 mourners.
A new park for London
In June 1854 and with Queen Victoria in attendance, the relocated Crystal Palace once again opened its doors to an eager public.
The new location was well connected with two purpose built railway stations; Crystal Palace Low Level on the park’s southern side (still open today) and Crystal Palace High Level.
Originally located on the western edge of the park, the High Level station closed in 1954 and has long since vanished, the site now covered by modern housing.
If you look carefully however, a few remnants of the old station can still be glimpsed. Alongside the new homes, just below Crystal Palace Parade, you’ll find a long retaining wall, which once run parallel to the station.
If you peer over the opposite side of Crystal Palace Parade, you’ll spot the dilapidated remains of a once ornate subway which provided a direct walkway between the station and the palace itself.
For those who wished to travel to the attraction by road, accommodation for three hundred horses-a sort of equine garage- was provided at the ‘Paxton Stables’, located behind the nearby Woodman Inn on Westow Hill, where your steed could rest for the price of one shilling and sixpence; “including a feed of corn and all other expenses.”
Today, ‘Joanna’s’ restaurant stands on the site of the old pub, although the cobbled road which led into to the horse facility can still be seen.
Park of delights
Inside the rebooted Crystal Palace there was a stunning amount for visitors to indulge in, with galleries showcasing art and culture from across the ages; Greek, Egyptian, Roman (including a court dedicated to the doomed town of Pompeii), Italian renaissance, Byzantine, Medieval and much more.
There were also galleries for musical instruments, fabrics, sculpture and various other modern technologies.
The surrounding gardens provided even more delights, with impressive arrays of flora, a park showcasing large dinosaur models (more of which in part two) and a system of powerful fountains which, when first inaugurated, were capable of firing jets of water 200ft into the air.
This impressive aquatic display was powered by two mighty water towers; each sanding 282 ft. high- 107 ft. taller than Nelson’s Column and designed by legendary engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
To keep the fountains operating at such levels, the towers were required to deal with a colossal 120,000 gallons of water per minute. However, it soon became apparent that the structures were unable to cope with such force and, fearing that the towers may rupture, the park’s owners had little choice but to wind the fountains down.
More successful of the outdoor features was the Pneumatic Railway; a short, experimental line linking one park gate to another.
The system consisted of an airtight pipe, sunk halfway into the ground, through which a single carriage was puffed from one end to the other- rather like a giant pea shooter.
Many visitors paid a few pence to ride this novelty but despite its popularity the railway remained open to the public for just one year. Its quick disappearance has since led to many an urban legend suggesting that the Victorian railcar lies buried somewhere deep beneath the park…
For the first thirty years at its new location, the Crystal Palace thrived, attracting an average of two million visitors per year.
Countless exhibitions were held; dog and cat shows, livestock shows, photography exhibitions, acrobatic displays, circuses, musical concerts and so on.
Firework extravaganzas were also popular and heads of state from across the globe came to enjoy the delights of the glistening landmark.
In 1911, the complex staged its biggest event ever; The Festival of Empire in which “representations of possessions beyond the seas”- such as Indian tea plantations, Australian vineyards and South African gold mines- sprang up around the park like a miniature, global village.
To help visitors access these dioramas, organizers laid down ‘The Red Route’; a mile and a half long electric railway with stations for each country.
Into the 20th century
Despite such extravagance, the Crystal Palace itself was struggling financially.
Since the turn of the century, the 1850s building- which it must be remembered had originally been designed to stand for a matter of months- was growing increasingly shabby.
Over the past decades, it had suffered fire and storm damage. Random panes of glass would often become loose and drop out and the framework required constant painting. The building’s vast size was proving too costly to maintain and, shortly after the Festival of Empire, the Crystal Palace was declared bankrupt.
War and a new lease of life
Eventually bailed out by the Earl of Plymouth, the huge venue stumbled back to its feet, making a few pounds on the side with newly installed banks of slot machines.
Another innovation was created by a chap called Edmund Dangerfield (editor of The Motor magazine) who, in one of the palace’s wings, set up the world’s very first museum dedicated to the motor-car.
Following the outbreak of WWI, the Crystal Palace and its surrounding park were closed to the public and commandeered by the military; the facilities being used to train 125,000 servicemen.
Due to the war emergency, the cars from Dangerfield’s motor museum were given little consideration; with those that could not be returned to their original donors being hastily dumped on waste ground near Charing Cross.
At the conclusion of the Great War the Crystal Palace found another role as a huge demob centre.
Once its duties to King and country were over, the attraction experienced a brief renaissance thanks to James Buckland; the newly installed manager who loved the Victorian icon so much that he’d named his daughter ‘Chrystal’.
During this period, the Crystal Palace provided a home for the very first incarnation of the Imperial War Museum; the weapons on display illustrating the horror of trench warfare which was still very fresh in people’s minds.
The Imperial War Museum remained at the Palace until 1924 before moving onto South Kensington and then Lambeth, where it has remained since 1936.
In the early 1930s, the Crystal Palace played an important role in the early history of television when the Scottish inventor, John Logie Baird decided to move his studio onto the premises, using Brunel’s two old water towers as masts for his antennas. To read more about Logie Baird’s London, please click here.
Farewell old friend
On the night of November 30th 1936, the legendary Crystal Palace came to a rapid and tragic end.
Just after 7pm, James Buckland- who lived nearby so he could keep a close eye on his cherished responsibility- was returning from an evening walk when he noticed a glow coming from the palace.
Rushing to the scene, he discovered staff attempting to extinguish a fire which, although small initially, was spreading faster than they could handle.
The flames quickly took hold, promptly engulfing the building in a mighty inferno. So intense was the blaze that its red haze could be seen as far away as Brighton and Margate, the disaster earning the awful title of Britain’s largest peace-time blaze.
Despite the exhaustive efforts of 430 firemen, 88 fire engines and 749 police officers the Crystal Palace was utterly destroyed; the London landmark turned into a smouldering ruin of twisted metal within a matter of hours.
A news-reel from the period covering the heartbreaking event can be viewed below.
The only features to survive the inferno were Brunel’s two water towers which remained in situ until the outbreak of WWII- when they were deliberately destroyed in what is believed to have been an attempt to thwart enemy bombers using the landmarks as navigational aids.
Amongst the ruins…
Today, the site of the old Crystal Palace on the park’s western edge is an eerie, melancholy place characterized by windswept staircases and lonely statues; many of which have been callously vandalized.
In 1953, American poet, James Broughton used the atmospheric ruins as the backdrop to his short, avant-garde film, The Pleasure Garden which featured Hattie Jacques and John Le Mesurier and sought to inject a little cheer into post-war Britain…